1:46 PM


Fellow Kenyans  ...... before you listen to those politically instigated statements on the YES and No . Please read the constitution both the current and the proposed  to make an informed choice.

THE CURRENT   CONSTITUTION IS HERE click here to download PDF of the current Constitution   

THE PROPOSED  CONSTITUTION  HTML  version  (online reading) is here CLICK TO GET THE HTML version the proposed constitution

click here to get the proposed KATIBA .... PDF format

HERE IS ALSO THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION ...Gives a lot on devolution





1:27 PM


This is a paper I presented at ICT conference 2009 held at Strathmore university Nairobi . My thesis is that for Kenya to achieve the VISION 2030, a bottom up  approach (Communities participation model) is the most effective, Local governments have closer links with communities and established core competencies enhanced by communities long standing trades and ways of life, though they have governance challenges. ICT can be used as an enabler to this activities.....here is the paper......



Local Authorities in Kenya are well linked with communities and if well utilized they can play a great role in country's development. Use of ICT by local governments as an enabler to enhance service delivery and promote growth and development which includes preservation and promotion of traditional knowledge , marketing of local products, local investment advisory services, domestic tourism e.t.c is still not well utilized . Focus on top down approach to E- governance tends to sideline other complementary ICT initiatives. In this paper we examine a number of roles and opportunities that use of ICT provides to the local governments in Kenya in their endeavor to enhance sustainable development in their localities and the translation of this experiences to the national growth. We draw experiences from other similar initiatives by local governments in the world and propose adoption of a participatory model that can be used in Kenya.

Keywords: ICT; socio-economic development; Local Authorities; diffusion


After the agrarian revolution, the success of any society is based on the efficiency and effectiveness of its information dissemination processes and the knowledge management structures. Information Communication Technology (ICT) has redefined these processes and structures by changed traditional business models, flattened organizational and governance structures and inoculating new entrepreneurship avenues [1].
Local government is one of the most strategic pillars of national growth and development [13] The need to link national information communication technologies (ICTs) strategies with the local governments’ agenda is necessary to achieve socio-economic development of the communities. Partnerships among different stakeholders in the society are a key factor toward developing an information society. The effectiveness of ICT in overall communities’ development is highly dependant on the success of these partnerships in ensuring introduction, adoption, diffusion and adaptation is carried out in a healthy and supportive environment [2]. This paper explores the role and opportunities that can be exploited by local governments in Kenya.

Kenya and Vision 2030

For a vision to transform and transcends the intended society the passion of vision must be created, engrained and integrating into every aspect peoples’ lives. In their book First Things First [3] states that
“The passion created by shared vision creates synergistic empowerment. It unleashes and combines the energy, talent and capacities of all involved. ” p.g 209
The Kenya vision 2030 launched on 29/10/06 provides the route path to transform Kenya to a middle income economic hub of prosperity with a sustainable growth rate of 10 percent by 2030 with goals of creating employment, wiping out absolute poverty, famine, preventable deaths and building a democratic system that respect the rule of law, rights and freedom of every individual and society [4] .The role of ICT in attaining these set goals is critical. Porter et al [5] argues that technology acquires great significance as countries move from low income level where development challenges are basic market factors like land, labor and capital to middle income level. Each Local government needs to create an enabling environment for the vision to be realized.

Technologies and Local communities

Planning and evaluation of ICT – based development initiatives is complex [6]. A number of researchers concur that ICT adoption and implementation is not a rational matter of developing and implementing solutions but also involves social and political processes [6-8].
Bridge.org [9] an organization that promote effective usage of ICT in developing world by addressing the realities of ICT-enabled socio-economic development gives a set of best practice guidelines, the 12 Habits of Highly Effective ICT-Enabled Development Initiatives [10]. The guidelines can be summarized as follows: The ICT development initiative should;
a) Research on the grey areas that gives the communities a competitive advantage to give a an assessment of available resources and goals
b) Have local ownership and raise the awareness in the communities which extends to educating and engaging with an aim of a buy-in that gives a sense of ownership among beneficiaries’. The initiatives should also seek to provide solution to local problems.
c) Form sound partnership and collaboration with stakeholders like civil societies, central government, organization , business communities and media to pool resources and experience to achieve the common good. This is also observed by Harindranath and Sein [11].
d) Have a foundation on technology – neutral concepts to accommodate future changes.
e) Involve traditionally isolated groups on basis of age, gender, race and religion.
f) Be sustainable over a long term either by bringing sufficient income or improvement to the welfare of the communities

ICT as an Engine of sustainable Growth and development.

The strategy for ICT in local authorities exists but focuses on e-Governance, national wide institutional partnerships and does not take into consideration local communities partnerships. [12]. Mittulah and Waema [13] in their research concept paper notes that the local authority ICT strategy in Kenya is too ambitious and has unrealistic implementation time frame. They also note the challenges human capacity, change management, funding and ICT resources in the local authorities that would affect the implementation.
The need for local partnerships is necessitated by the fact that each local government has its unique opportunities that result from established traditional economic activities e.g. Thika Municipal council is traditionally known as an agricultural and industrial town popularly known as the “Birmingham of Kenya” whereas Olkejuado town council has activities like tourism and cattle rearing. This can only succeed through support of the communities and the government both local and central.
In the forthcoming sections we look at the current E-governance strategy in Kenya and highlight areas for further improvement. We also draw examples of successful ICT communities’ partnership and propose a participatory model that can be used in Kenya. The examples here fall into three categories namely; E-governance, tourism, and agriculture.

ICT in Governance

The Local e-Governance strategy focuses on management of services through cost cutting. The strategy provides for three products [12]:
(1) Local Authorities Integrated Financial Operations Management System (LAIFOMS) which has three components namely revenue, expenditure and budget preparation – monitoring .
(2) Local Authorities geographical information system (LAGIS) that aims to map and geo-reference properties in local authorities with a view to determine the potential for collection of rates from property owners.
(3)Local Authorities human resource management systems (LAHRMS).
There are many dimensions of governance that the current strategy does not consider. Sturges [14] gives the main elements of a public governance and transparency as open government and public scrutiny, freedom of information laws, Financial accountability and social auditing and community awareness
The success of E-governance in Ireland is attributed to promotion of freedom, communities centered approach and wiping out “unfreedom” like bureaucracies e.t.c [15] . Ireland was able to create a community awareness program on the e-government services which focused on enrooting entrepreneurship and provision of fundamental services like customer inquiries and business support services.
In India the central government has liaised with states and municipal to offer online community services and providing local language support facilities e.g. The Dandeli city municipal council where users can get documents in local language – kannada . The website also gives an over view of the major economic activities of the city like industries (http://www.dandelicity.gov.in/index.html)

ICT in Tourism

ICT is vital in providing marketing infrastructure for both domestic and foreign tourism. Local Government needs to collaborate with communities and partners like the ministry of tourism and tourism board of Kenya to promote their goods and services. Domestic tourism can be promoted through cultural exchanges; communities’ social activities e.t.c. Domestic tourism offers great opportunities for wealth creation in the communities.
New Zealand focuses on small and medium-sized tourism enterprises (SMTE). It uses synergistic approach that accommodate both central and local government tourism strategies with the knowledge that Local authorities are often best placed to identify the policy mechanisms that can best support the creation of wealth at the local communities level and their contribution can be assimilated in the national development policy [16]. Rodney District Council is one of the areas where SMTE have been successfully implemented through community participation.

ICT in Agriculture.

Agriculture is the major economic activity in Kenya. One of the major problems experienced by farmers is timely access to information since high percentages of farmers are in rural areas. Communities’ partnership can be used to establish agricultural community centers’ where farmer can access market information, products varieties. Soirano noted that agricultural Community telecentres had a positive impact on rural poverty reduction in China Wu’an village[17].

The Participatory Model for ICT Adaption, Implementation and Diffusion in Kenya

In this section we propose a model adopted from for ICT adaption, Implementation and diffusion in Kenya to enhance socio- economic development in the local communities. The model below  denoted  Fig 1 is proposed since it easily assimilates the already existing Local Authorities Services Development Action plan (LASDAP) [12] approach that advocate for direct involvement communities’ and public private partnerships in charting their development agenda.

Fig 1: Pro-Poor Growth (PPG) model below  adopted from [18]….. (p.g 16)


ICT plays an important role in ensuring and the effectiveness of local authorities in promotion wealth creation, societal empowerment and the realization of vision 2030. Public private partnerships at local levels play an important role in ensuring the vision stays alive. There is need for the local government to redefine its ICT strategy to cater for these partnerships. Mohamed Yunus [19] stressed the need for IT in all strata of life economic prosperity is to be achieve ….
There is an on-going view that IT is totally irrelevant for the poor who are generally illiterate; IT is too expensive for them to reach out to; the poor don’t need fancy IT, they need food. These are the voices of the sceptics. Now in three years there are more than 5000 Telephone Ladies in Bangladesh villages doing roaring business selling telephone service.” (Mohammed Yunus 2001)


[1] Craig Mundie and, Haynes P. HOW INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY. IS TRANSFORMING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. Microsoft Corporation: download microsoftcom//WP_ICT_and_Economic_Developmentpdf

[2] Kamel S, Rateb D, El-Tawil M. The Impact of ICT investments on economic development in Egypt. The Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries 2009; 36:1-21.

[3] Stephen Covey, Roger Merrill, Merrill R, First aThings First: To Live, to Love, to Learn, to Leave a Legacy. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994.

[4] http://www.nesc.go.ke/News&Events/KenyaVision2030Intro.htm, Kenya Vision 2030: Transforming National Development.

[5] Porter ME, Sachs JD, Cornelius PK, McArthur JW, Schwab K, Executive summary: competitiveness and stages of economic development. In: M. E. Porter JDS, P. K. Cornelius, J. W. McArthur , K. Schwab, editor. New york, 2002: 16-25.

[6] Tantoush, Clegg. CADCAM integration and the practical politics of technological change. Journal of Organizational Change Management 2001; 14:9-27.

[7] Zorn T, Politics, Emotion, and the Discourse of ICT Adoption and Implementation Annual Meeting of the Australia-New Zealand Communication Association. Gold Coast Australia, 2002.

[8] Flak, Rose. Stakeholder governance: adapting Stakeholder Theory to e-Government. Communications of the Association for Information Systems 2005; 16.

[9] Bridge.org, http://www.bridges.org/about

[10] bridge.org, 12 Habits of Highly Effective ICT-Enabled Development Initiatives. http://www.bridges.org /12_habits.

[11] Harindranath &, Sein, revisiting the role of ict in development Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries. São Paulo Brazil, 2007.

[12] Ministry of Local Government kenya, Information, education and communication Strategy for the ministry of local government December 2008. http://www.localgovernment.go.ke/index.php?option=com_jdownloads&Itemid=49&task=view.download&cid=1.

[13] Winnie Mitullah & Waema T, State of ICT and Local Governance, Needs Analysis and Research Priorities. Local Governance and ICTs Research Network for Africa Nairobi kenya, 2005.

[14] Sturges P. Corruption, Transparency and a Role for ICT? . International Journal of Information Ethics : 2004; 2(11).

[15] Orla O’Donnell, Richard Boyle , Timonen V, Transformational aspects of e-Government in Ireland: Issues to be addressed Institute of Public Administration (IPA), Ireland 2005.

[16] Nodder C, Cate N, Slater K, Milne S, www.unitec.ac.nz: ICT, Local Government & Tourism Development: Cases from Auckland, New Zealand : . 2001.

[17] Soriano C. Exploring the ICT and Rural Poverty Reduction Link : Community Telecentre and Rural Livelihoods in Wu’an China. The Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries EJISDC 2007; 1:1-15.

[18] Directorate DC-o, OECD. Good Practice Paper on ICTs for Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction. The DAC Journal 2005; 3.

[19] Yunus M, Key note speech Making Globalisation Work for the Poor – the European Contribution. Kramfors Sweden,, 2001.